Archive for August, 2011

August 19, 2011

Question of the Day

August 14, 2011

Prince of Persia : The Two Thrones


GUARD. Most numerously and most often appearing enemy, armed with the long, curved saber. Individually or in the small company, is standing on guard guarding everything literally: passages, alleys, squares, corridors, roofs and palace chambers. It is the typical muscleman attacking with no subtle method, with simple cuts with saber and kicking sometimes. It is fairly difficult to defeat but you may take him by surprise (speed kill attack).
SAND GUARD. He is appearing only in the neighborhood of the Sand Gate, with skills and weapons not to differ from ordinary Guards. The only thing that is distinguishing him from is the red smock under the amour. Alarmed, immediately runs to the magic pile and sticks the saber into it, calling for reinforcements. For this reason he should be the prince’s first goal during the fight for every Sand Gate. Luckily it is possible to eliminate him to death with lightening speed, using the speed kill attack.
THRALL. He is taking the place of Guard in later levels of the game. This mighty muscleman is attired with the amour (although there are specimen with naked torso), and carries the iron headgear on the head. Equipped with the saber, the mace or the hatchet, is able to inflict considerable wounds. He is significantly stronger than the Guard and more resistant to blows. The fight against him is lasting the longer, and speed kill attack usually requires the bigger amount of cuts comparing to his weaker comrade. 
ARCHER. Other the most popular enemy in the game, wearing the birdlike mask on the face, equipped with the arch and the infinite amount of arrows. Although weaker than the Guard, he may constitute the real threat, especially when he is shooting from hard accessible place. In direct clash he has no chances at all so you may eliminate him using the speed kill attack.
HUNTER HOUND. He appears most often in groups consisting 3-4 pieces. This creature is reminding of no traditional hound, but rather bloodthirsty hound. This large beast is attacking with claws and he is biting, however it isn’t especially dangerous. The most dangerous feature of him is the skill “of sucking up” sands of time from ducal slots. The speed kill attack is no use.
REPTUS. The man mutated with the reptilian element, appearing mostly in cellars, channels, dark corridors etc. Equipped with the large hatchet is able to inflict severe wounds although he is moderate resistant to blows. He isn’t applying sophisticated tactics of the fight however he is very determined. There are places where prince has to fight a dozen or so Reptus. The speed kill attack is no use.
ILLUSIONS. The fight from the distance is this enemy’s advantage undoubtedly. He possesses the endless stock of knives whom, is throwing extremely relevantly. Moreover he is moving with lightening speed after throws to the other region of the location in order to repeat the attack from the distance. The problem is to catch the illusion however when you manage to hit it, it turns out to be a little demanding enemy. The speed kill attack is no use.
ENCHANTRESS. Speed and the dancer’s finesse – you may characterize the enchantress with these words. Using the combination of kicks and cuts with two long blades, she is able to inflict many wounds. The speed kill attack is no use. She isn’t too resistant and therefore a few accurate blows are downing her to the ground. Her revolving kicks are dangerous, it may throw away the hero over the rail of the balcony. The attack in the group is also her advantage. Thanks to big speed of inflicting strikes, a few enchantresses may surround the prince and kill him before he will do anything.
CHAMELEON. In the demoniacal helmet on the face, naked torso and sharp as razor blade he seems to be the difficult enemy but these are only appearances. The invisibility is his only advantage in principle and he looses it after first hit. He prefers both open spaces, and dark, tight chambers of palaces and temples. He is not serious threat. Speed kill attack is no use.




The Ramparts
Harbor District
The Streets of Babylon
The Palace Balcony
The Palace
The Throne Room
The Trapped Hallway
The Ruined Palace
The Royal Chambers
The Sewers
The Tunnels
The Fortress
The Lower City
The Lower City Rooftops
The Arena
The Arena Tunnel
The Balconies
The Dark Alley
The Temple Rooftops
The Temple
The Marketplace
The Market District
The Bowery
The Brothel
The Plaza
The Upper City
The City Gardens
The Canal
The Promenade
The Royal Workshop
The King’s Road
The Palace Entrance
The Hanging Gardens
The Structure’s Mind
The Well of Ancestors
The Labyrinth
The Underground Cave
The Royal Kitchen
The Secret Passage
The Lower Tower
The Middle Tower
The Upper Tower
The Terrace
The Mental Realm


During the game you will fight a few bosses. They have one thing in common (apart from Golem) the red energy bar displayed during the fight on the bottom of the screen. These figures are significantly more powerful than standard hostile warriors and every attempt of the standard, frontal attack usually ends with death. To defeat the boss is possible only with method, and the discovery of his weak point is the player’s first task.

KLOMPA. He appears on the level 15. The arena. Gigantic warrior with long tongue and yet longer sword. He is tough like the rock, and therefore it is senseless to approach him in the initial stage of the fight.

Fight with Klompa consists of two stages.

First stage: the prince is climbing the high platform taking advantage of sticking out elements of the arena and he is jumping to the giant’s head twice gouging giants eyes out with the dagger.

The second stage: the prince is finishing the dazzled and helpless boss from the ground level banging over shins.

MAHASTI. She appears on the level 24. The Brothel. The warrior in the white-purple uniform is extremely quick, nimble and dangerous. She may use blades wielded in hands well, moreover her revolving kicks are extremely hard.

The fight against Mahasti consists of two stages.

First stage: taking advantage of the whole range of blows from air and the extra weapon the prince takes out about of enemy’s life.

Second stage: after transformation into the Dark Prince the hero is chasing Mahasti over platforms of the backyard, at key moments slowing down the time with the Eye of Storm.

GOLEM. He appears on the level 27. The City Gardens. The large, green monster is made from the stone probably, and therefore piercing through the skin is no use. As other bosses he has his weak point – calves.

The fight against Golem consists of two stages.

First stage: the prince is circulating the boss all around and is attacking his calves forcing to kneel. He is jumping on his head then and he is sticking the dagger into the neck.

Second stage: the hero is driving dazed with pain, speeding Golem so he didn’t fall into the wall. The boss is falling finally dead after a dozen or so severe switchbacks and a few broken gates.

TWINS. They appear on the level 31. The King’s Road. One of brothers is equipped with powerful hatchet, the other one – large saber. They usually surround their victim during the fight attacking at the same time from both sides.

The fight against Twins consists of two stages.

First stage: the prince is rounding the enemy with the saber provoking his brother’s attack. The enemy is sticking the hatchet into the ground and is not able to take it out for a longer moment. It is possible in this time to inflict a number of deep wounds on him.

Second stage: after taking about half of energy bar out of axeman the hero may execute the speed kill attack seriously wounding twins (particularly the warrior with the saber). Second speed kill, deadening twins finally, is executed after taking about 3/4 of energy bar out of axeman.

VIZIER. He appears on the level 43. The Terrace. Most important and at the same time most difficult boss. His strength lies in magic skills rather than in fitness and in the ability to levitate. It is hard to get him.

The fight against the vizier consists of three stages..

First stage: the boss is attacking with single although heavy blows. After executing the sidestep (jump or roll over) Prince is counterpunching the Vizier with combo, after which is withdrawing back to wait until the next attack. After a few successful actions and taking about the 1/3 energy bar out of daemon, the hero is forcing him to retreat.

Second stage: the Vizier force columns and walls pieces to move and fly a few meters above the arena. Prince, avoiding boss’ magical missiles and the contact with monstrous rubble is running vertically on columns behind the enemy’s back initiating attacks from them. Every triple speed kill is inflicting serious wounds to the Vizier. Three such actions and the boss withdraws from the battlefield again.

Third stage: the Vizier hanging high above the arena is raising all circling pieces off wall upwards. In order to get him the hero has to clamber up levitating crumbs and jumping one by one to reach the boss. The prince is executing final speed kill after reaching the peak and the Vizier is dying.

FREE-FORM FIGHTING.The complex system letting the prince defeat enemies by applying defensive-offensive technologies with usage of available weapon and the usage of elements of the environment (walls, poles, rails etc.). Linking single blows freely and combos made from few dozen of blows, the player is creating his own, unique style of fight. The control of the prince’s movements is performed with both mouse buttons and action keys („E”, “C” and the space by default).
SPEED KILL. Instant attack from surprise, letting put the enemy to death, before the he is manages to react. It is possible execute when the screen is beginning to glitter in the peculiar way. The correct speed kill execution while playing the prince is to push the attack button in suitable moment i.e. when the blade will shine. If you play the Dark Prince it will be enough to press the attack button quick after speed kill activation and the hero will kill the enemy automatically. 
August 13, 2011

The 5-Minute Essential Shell Tutorial

Alright, far too often (especially in the IRC channels) there is a time where even the most beginner of users are faced with the terminal.  It has many names: terminal, shell, console, “command prompt” even as a carryover from those familiar with Windows.  Many people are frightened by it for some reason or another, so this tutorial will attempt to provide you the most basic of commands to enable navigation and basic system actions from the comfort of your keyboard.

Let’s get started shall we?  Since everyone’s Mint version can be different, I’m not going to detail how to actually open the terminal.  I’ll assume you can find it in the menu or by right-clicking in the desktop.


  1. You can do almost anything in a terminal which you would also do from a GUI interface.
  2. Most commands were designed first to work in the terminal, then a GUI put on top of them.  That’s why some GUI’s may feel clunky – they were an afterthought at times.
  3. The default location for your terminal to open from the menu is in your home folder, also known as ~
  4. Your current directory can be noted by the . operator.  Most commands when they act on the current folder selection, operate on .
  5. Commands, locations, and files are case sensitive.  /home is not the same as /HOME or /Home.
  6. Use the tab key to complete file names.  If you have a long driver titled, for example,, simply type dri and it will fill in the rest, provided you don’t have 2 names starting with “dri” and if you do, add another character to make it “driv” and try again.
  7. Almost any command can be read about in full using the manpage or by typing -h or –help after writing the initial command.  This syntax is either man command_namecommand_name -h, or command_name –help.
  8. To get even more information, you can use info.  A command can be searched for by using info command_name.  For most of these commands which are part of the coreutils package, one can find info as well using info coreutils command_name invocation where command_name is replaced by the command searched for.
  9. Almost any command can also explicitly display what is happening.  This is done usually by the -v or –verbose
  10. You can specify multiple command flags to a command at a time to get more information (see the ls -al example below.)
  11. Command names are not always obtuse – due to space limitations in the old days of Unix they were shortened, and the conventions stuck.


cd -> Used to navigate the directories.  You can move to any location by path.

  1. cd This will move you back to your home, same as cd ~
  2. cd .. This will take you back exactly one directory.  Starting in /home/justin/Desktop, cd .. will put me into /home/justin.  This can be expanded upon, cd ../../ from the Desktop location instead will move me 2 back, from my Desktop to /home.
  3. cd foldername/ This will move you forward to the given folder in your current folder.  Take note of the missing prefix / it is an important omission.  if I am in /home/justin and I want to get to Desktop, I must type cd Desktop/ without the / before Desktop.  Typing / before it places us in the root of file system, which is incorrect.
  4. cd /some/other/path This will take you to the specified folder path, supposing it exists as typed exactly.  Don’t forget your tab completion!

ls -> Used to list folder contents.  You can view many kinds of file and folder attributes.

  1. ls By itself, ls will simply list all your files in the current folder.  From fact #4, this literally does ls .
  2. ls -l Provides a longer listing format including owners, permissions, size, and date modified.
  3. ls -a Displays hidden files and folders as well as the normal listing.
  4. ls -al Combine options to display both hidden files and in the long format.
  5. ls -h Show file sizes in human readable format (K, M, Gbyte) filesizes instead of bytes.  Often used in conjuction with the -l flag.
  6. You can view files in directories you are not even in.  If I am in /home/justin/Desktop, and I want to view a file in /home/justin, I can do ls ../ list files one directory back (and not have to go back to do so.)

cp -> Copy files

  1. cp file /path/to/folder Copies specified file to the given path.
  2. cp -r folder /path/to/folder  Copies recursively the contents of the folder to another folder.
  3. cp *.extension /path/to/folder  Copies files matching the given extension to the new folder.  To copy all .doc files, it becomes cp *.doc /path/to/folder and the folder must exist.
  4. cp name* /path/to/folder  Copies all files starting with ‘name’ to the given folder.  To copy all files starting with example, it becomes cp example* /path/to/folder and the folder must exist.

mv -> Move files

  1. The syntax of mv is similar to the example above with cp exempt for example #2.  mv does not take the -r flag since moving a folder also moves its contents.  The syntax is not exact in all instances, but works with the above examples.  Consult your manpages for more details.

rm -> Remove files

  1. For all intents and purposes, removing files via rm is permanent.  It does not use the Trash bin.  Use with caution and make sure you are deleting explicitly what you want, not what you think you want.  If you decide to get fancy with your delete commands, it’s probably going to come back to bite you.
  2. rm file  Remove the specified file from the system.
  3. rm -r folder  Remove the specified folder from the system
  4. rm -rf folder  Removes the specified folder forcefully from the system.  This command can severely break your configuration if used incorrectly as it will not prompt you if something critical is being deleted.  If you have to use this, chances are something more is broken or there was a mistake made.  This should only be used as an absolute last resort method and is not recommended.

nano -> full command line text editor

  1. One can edit files using nano in a terminal to do quick and dirty files all the way up to full configurations.  It’s handy, but keep in mind it handles plain text files and programming files, things like MS Word documents will not open properly!
  2. If a file is owned by root, it is not editable as a normal user.  nano must be prefixed with sudo in order to save changes.  Otherwise, it will open in read-only mode.
  3. nano newfile.whatever  Nano creates a new file of the specified name and opens it for editing.
  4. nano existing_file  Nano opens the existing file for editing.
  5. From inside nano
    1. Save file using the ctrl+o key combination, and either change the name or press entier to keep the same name.  This will save the file.
    2. Exit nano by using ctrl+x key combination.  If you have unsaved changes, it will ask if you want to save.

mkdir -> Create directories

  1. mkdir folder_name  Creates the folder with the specified name
  2. mkdir -p /path/to/folder/name  Creates each folder as necessary.  To create folder /home/justin/newfolder/2ndfolder, and only /home/justin exists, using mkdir -p will make both directories newfolder and 2ndfolder.

ps -> List processes

  1. ps aux  List all processes in detail running on the system, including user, Process ID (PID), and name of process.  Using this, one can view their process list and if necessary, kill unnecessary or stalled processes.

kill / killall / xkill -> Kill offending processes.

  1. kill PID  PID is a number referencing the offending process.  One should obtain the PID from a command like ps aux.  If a process refuses to die, one can alternatively specify kill -9 PID which should terminate the process by any means, even uncleanly or if it will mess up the system.
  2. killall program  Killall kills *by name* all instances of said program.  If there are for example 3 firefox sessions open, killall firefox will do just that; kill all firefox sessions.  kill would simply take the specified PID of the offending firefox process you wish to kill, and kill that one only.
  3. xkill is a GUI way to click and kill windows.  Typing in xkill should present a skull-and-crossbones icon, and the next window clicked on will be killed.

Pipes  ->  The most useful thing you will learn in *NIX.  Redirecting output of a program to anothers input.

  1. Pipes are represented by the ‘ straight bar ‘ otherwise known as the ‘ | ‘ key.
  2. It is a rarely used key in Windows, it is often found on the backslash key.
  3. They are used to link commands together.  Pipes take the output of one command and route it to be used as input for a second command chained together.
  4. Consult more online resources with information about pipes and their use as there are volumes.

> and >> redirectors  –> Send output to a file instead of the terminal.

  1. > is used to *overwrite* currently existing files contents and replace with the output from the new command.
  2. >> is used to *append* information to currently existing files.  This is useful for logging.
  3. Example: ps aux > processes.log  Sends the output of ps aux to the file processes.log for viewing the command output in a text editor and overwrites the current contents of the file.

tee -> Send output to both a file and the terminal

  1. tee is used in conjunction with a ‘ | ‘ in order to take the command output and send it elsewhere.  This is useful if there are errors which fly by the screen before you can read them, this way whatever goes on the screen is also captured to a file.
  2. Example: dmesg | tee boot.txt would run the command dmesg which shows the initial boot info, and the ‘ | ‘ sends the output of dmesg to tee, which then does its job by sending it to the terminal and to the log file boot.txt.

File Execution -> So you want to execute files or programs from the terminal?  Make sure it’s  marked executable.  If not, see Quick Tip #4 below.

  1. Need to execute a file in the current directory after it is marked executable?  The ./ operator can execute the file as a normal user provided you do not need root rights.  ./ literally means “in the current directory” so it does not work on files outside of the present directory.
  2. Need to execute a file not in the current directory?  You must pass the path to the proper executing program.  If it is a python program, it’s python /path/to/file and if it is a shell file, it is sh /path/to/file as an example.  There are of course other programs, but these will be the most common for beginners.
  3. Need to execute a file with root rights because you received operation not permitted?  Prefix the command with sudo.  Thus, from the above example, sudo python /path/to/file will execute the script with root rights.
  4. Need to execute a GUI program from the terminal?  Simply type the program name (case sensitive!) and it will launch.  This will render the current terminal unusable.  Closing the terminal while the program is open will kill the program.  A better way is to background the program, using program_name & and then typing the word exit at the terminal to close it and keep the process running.
  5. Need to run a GUI program with root rights from the terminal?  Prefix it with gksudo or gksu and not sudo.  Using sudo to launch GUI applications is a bad habit and should be avoided.
  6. Do not, do *not* use sudo simply because something receives “Operation not permitted.”  Keep in mind what you are doing as you can absolutely *destroy* systems by running commands in the wrong place with root rights.  This point cannot be emphasized enough.  Make sure your files come from reputable sources.

Quick tips:

  1. Lost yourself in a directory?  Not sure where you are?  Type pwd to print working directory.
  2. Want to calculate your disk space quickly?  df -h can give you a quick checkup.
  3. Want to calculate the size of a folder or file quickly?  du -cksh target_name can do exactly that.  Want to calculate the size of the current folder?  du -cksh .
  4. Need to mark a file executable?  chmod +x filename can do that.  Next time you see a file you need to execute and it is not marked executable, now you know how to fix it.
  5. Want to mount an iso like Daemon-Tools on Windows?  Linux has this functionality built in.  Simply create a directory somewhere, say /home/justin/isomount, and issue the command mount -o loop /path/to/myisofile.iso /home/justin/isomount and the contents will be mounted inside that folder.
  6. Run a command before, you need to re-run it, but you can’t really remember what it was exactly?  Type history into the terminal and it will print out your command history.  Want to clear your history?  history -c will wipe the information.
August 13, 2011

Using Text Editors in Linux

This list of text editors is provided to you courtesy of the staff.  Note that in many cases your version comes with a graphical text editor such as Kate or Kwrite, etc. This section is for those who need to use command line editors. For some lighthearted but encouraging information about Kate (KDE graphical editor) you can read this article.

Text editors are similar to word processors, providing various features for writing documents.  Several text editors are available on Linux, and this page explains how to use the three most popular.

For information about the specific text editor click on the name below.

Vi is often the default editor that pops up when you’re ready to write an e-mail message or when you’re posting a News message.  Vi is complicated and seems difficult to learn at first.  However, it is often the default for Unix and Linux systems.  This chapter explains the use of the Vi editor.
Pico is a fairly simple text editor that provides straight-forward options and easy-to-use commands.  Although some programmers have frowned at Pico’s simplicity and limited options, most folks find that it provides everything necessary to write long documents with minimal hassles.  However, Pico is not very good when manipulating certain types of files such as making changes to .cgi files etc.
Emacs falls somewhere between the straightforward Pico and the complicated Vi.  Unlike Vi, you don’t need to switch between modes to perform basic text editing functions.  Sadly, the vast set of powerful commands themselves are difficult to remember.  The Emacs link includes basic information on Emacs for situations where you may encounter it or for those who use it on an occasional basis.



Vi Editor
Click on this link to go to the command summary.

Start the Vi editor by typing vi at the prompt.  Typing vi followed by a file name will automatically name the file so you don’t have to worry about it later.

On a number of other occasions programs use Vi for text editing.  When you post to a News group or send e-mail, the system may default to Vi.  How do you know when you’re in Vi and when you can use Vi commands?

Vi has two modes:  Command mode that lets you use commands to edit, save, or quit; and Text mode that lets you type.   If you attempt to do something in the wrong mode, the system beeps furiously at you until you either stop pressing keys or scream (the louder the scream the more beeps you muffle).

Use the Esc key to change from one mode to the other.
Simple Example of Using Vi:

Vi starts in the Command mode.  To switch to text mode press i.
Type out your text.  To make corrections, move to a location in your text, or
          save your file, switch to the Command mode by pressing Esc.
In command mode you may edit, save, or exit (see Command Mode below
          for details).
To switch back to Text mode, type i again.  Getting the hang of switching
          between modes may take a while, so be patient with yourself.

Occasionally, when you’re typing quickly, some of your text may seem to disappear.  Actually your text is still there, but has become blacked out.  This black-out is usually caused by a slow screen update, and Vi is notorious for this.  Because the information on your screen is coming through your modem, it needs to be updated (refreshed) occasionally, or parts of the information disappear from your screen.  To update your screen’s information, hold down the Ctrl key and press l (thats an L not a 1) while in the Command mode.  Do this whenever chunks of your text black-out.
Text Writing Mode
The Vi editor starts in the Command mode.  To switch to the Text mode and begin typing, press i.  If you hear several beeps and you’re unable to type, then press i twice to switch to the text mode.

Command Mode
Press the Esc key to switch from Text mode to Command mode.
Moving Around

Saving and Exiting

  • quit Vi without saving anything  (you’ll lose any changes you made when using this command) type:   :q!
  • save/write the file you’re working on without exiting type:  :w   followed by a filename
  • save/write your file and quit the vi editor in one step by typing:  :wq


Vi Troubleshooting

Trying to use a command
 If youre trying to use a Move, Save, or Edit command but the command isnt working, switch from Text mode to Command mode by pressing the Esc key.

 If the backspace key doesnt work, then hold down the Ctrl key and press backspace.

Trying to save
 If you get the message No current filename, type :w followed by a filename.  The message appears only if a filename has not been specified.
 If you get the message Is a directory, youre trying to write to a directory not a file.  Use a different name for your file to save it properly.



Pico Editor
Click on this link to go straight to command summary.

If you have trouble getting access to Pico, briefly review the next chapter, Customizing Your Account.  If Pico isnt loading and you want to try it out right away, follow these steps:

At the prompt type:  set path=($HOME/bin /usr/local/bin)
Next, press the key.
This is only a temporary setting.  To make Pico permanently available, you need to refer to Chapter 8, Customizing Your Account.

Start the Pico editor by typing pico at the prompt.  Typing pico followed by a file name automatically names the file so you don’t have to worry about it later.  Ex:    pico newfile.txt

Using Pico is fairly straight-forward.  The blinking cursor indicates where you may begin typing.  Type out your message without worrying about line breaks or page breaks.  Pico takes care of these for you.  When you’re finished typing, or anytime you’re ready to use a Pico command, refer to the Pico menu options, listed at the bottom of the screen.

To use an option, hold down the Ctrl key and press the letter indicated.  The ^ symbol represents the Ctrl key.
Ex:  To use the option ^G Get Help, hold down the Ctrl key (designated by the ^ character) and press g.  Always refer to the bottom two lines of Pico to see what options are available to you.  Depending on what you’re doing in Pico, your options change.
Editing text
You can edit your document by using the arrow keys and the backspace key on your keyboard.

Sometimes, when you’re typing quickly, your text may seem to disappear.  Your text is still there, but has become blacked out.  This black-out is usually caused by a slow screen update.  Because the information on your screen is coming through your modem, it needs to be updated (refreshed) occasionally, or parts of the information disappear from your screen.  To update your screen’s information, hold down the Ctrl key and press l (thats L, not the number 1).  Do this whenever chunks of  text you’re working on become blacked out.
Movement Commands:
Depending on your system, the arrow keys or the backspace key may not work.  Instead, you can use these commands to perform the same tasks.

Smorgasbord of Pico Options

^C Cancel allows you to stop a process at any time.  If you make a mistake, just hold down the Ctrl key and press c.

^G Get Help
Get clear and concise assistance from the Pico help, in case something unexpected happens or you need additional information about a command.

^X Exit
Exit Pico at anytime.  If you’ve made changes to a file or you’ve worked on a new file, but you havent saved the changes, you see this message:
Save modified buffer (ANSWERING “No” WILL DESTROY CHANGES) (y/n)?
Answering no (press n) will close Pico and bring you back to the prompt without saving your file.
Answering yes (press y) will allow you to save the file you’ve been working on (see WriteOut section below for details).
^O WriteOut
Save your file without hassles or worries.  Fill in the name of your file beside the File Name to write: prompt.  If your file already has a name, then press enter.

^T To Files option lets you save your text over a file that exists in your directory.  By choosing the To Files option, Pico takes you to a directory Browser.

Browser Options
 To alter a file or directory, first use the arrow keys or the optional movement keys (described on page 32) to highlight a particular name.  You can also press w to find and highlight a file or directory quickly.  Once you’ve highlighted a particular file or directory, you can use any one of these options.
 Type e to Exit the Browser
 Type r to rename a directory or file
 Type d to delete a file
 Type m to create an additional copy of a file
  Type g to move to another directory where the file is located Type s or press to write over the file with text you just    wrote in Pico

^R Read File
Insert text from another file into your current text file.  This option allows you to search through your directories for a file that you would like to add to your text.  This option is especially handy if you’ve saved a document and would like to add its content to the new file you’re working on.  Text from the file you select is placed on the line directly above your cursor.
At the Insert file: prompt you may either type a file name or use the Browser options.

^T To Files option lets you import a text file directly into the file you’re currently typing.  By choosing the To Files option, Pico takes you to a directory Browser.

Browser Options
 To alter a file or directory, first use the arrow keys or the optional movement keys (described on page xx) to highlight a particular name.  You can also type W to find and highlight a file or directory quickly.  Once you’ve highlighted a particular file or directory you can use any one of these options.
 Type e to Exit the Browser
 Type r to rename a directory or file
 Type d to delete a file
 Type m to create an additional copy of a file
  Type g to move to another directory where a file for    importing may be located
 Type s or press to import a text file directly into your    current file
^Y Prev Pg
Move quickly to the previous page.  Although you could just as easily press the up arrow key several times, this command quickly jumps your cursor up one page.
^V Next Pg
Move quickly to the next page.  Although you could just as easily press the down arrow key several times, this command quickly jumps your cursor down one page.
^K Cut Text
Cut a line of text.  This option allows you to cut a full line of text.  By using the uncut command and your arrow keys, you can then paste the cut text at another location in your document.  To cut specific text in a line or to cut several lines of text, first select the text (see Selecting Text on the next page).
Selecting Text
To select text for cutting and pasting use the following steps:

Move the cursor to the beginning of the text you want to select
Hold down the Ctrl key and press ^
Use the right arrow key or hold down Ctrl and press f to highlight text
When you have highlighted the appropriate text, hold down the Ctrl key  and press k to cut it.
Paste the text you cut, anywhere in your document, using UnCut Text

^U UnCut Text
Paste text that you previously cut.  You can use this option to undo an accidental cut of text or place cut text at another location in your document.  The text you cut is pasted on the line directly above your cursor.

^C Cur Pos
Indicate the current position of your cursor, relative to the entire document.  This is a helpful option if you’d like to check exactly where in your document you are.  The status line indicates the following items:
 [ line 8 of 18 (44%), character 109 of 254 (42%) ]
 ^J Justify
Even out lines of text.  This command is handy when you acciden-tally type extra spaces between words or press the key before reaching the end of a line.  The option evens the length of your text lines automatically.
^U UnJustify
UnJustify lines of text.  For the messy line look you can always select the UnJustify option.
^W Where is
Find a particular string of text quickly.  This option allows you to do a word search in your text.  This option is especially handy for longer documents.  If the word you designated at the Search: prompt is found, it places the cursor beside it.
^T To Spell
Check for spelling errors.  The spell check option allows you to correct spelling errors throughout your document.  If spell checker finds a misspelled word or a word it doesn’t recognize (don’t worry,  this rarely happens), it will let you correct the word.  At the Edit a replacement: prompt, type in the correct spelling of a word.  However, if you don’t want to make any changes, simply press the enter key.

Any words that you’ve corrected but re-occur in the document can be automatically replaced.  At the Replace a with b? [y]: prompt press y to replace all occurrences of the misspelled word or n to ignore.



Emacs Editor

Start Emacs text editor by typing emacs at the prompt.  Typing emacs followed by a file name automatically names the file, so you don’t have to worry about it later.
If youre in a hurry, turn the page for Emacs commands.
Emacs doesn’t require you to switch between modes.  However, when using Emacs, keep in mind these things: it’s often necessary to press enter before reaching the end of a line; all of the commands require you to hold down the Ctrl key and press a letter; and messages that appear are usually loaded with jargon, so if you don’t understand them, ignore them.
Simple Example of Using Emacs:

 At the prompt type:  emacs
 You see a long and dull message appear on your screen.  Start
          typing your document.
 To save your file, hold down the Ctrl key and press x; then hold down the
          Ctrl key and press w.
 Beside the Write file: ~/ prompt, type the name of your file and press enter.
          Ex:  Write file: ~/testfile.txt
 To quit Emacs, hold down the Ctrl key and press x; then hold down the
          Ctrl key and press c.

Emacs Commands


Saving and Editing


Using the movement keys, locate your cursor in the appropriate spot for editing. Besides using the Delete key to delete individual characters, you can use the following editing commands:

Emacs Troubleshooting

Trying to Search
 If there are no other text strings that match the one youve searched for, you see the message: Failing I-search backward: flesch.  Re-start your search or stop searching.

Trying to Save
 If you try to save a file that has the same name as a directory, you see the message: File /usr/u4/mraiszad/test is a directory.
You have to name your file something else.

Emacs Tutorial?
An Emacs tutorial is available on the system.  To review the Emacs Tutorial, hold down the Ctrl key and press h; then press t.  To quit the tutorial, hold the Ctrl key and press x; then hold the Ctrl; and press c.

Refreshing Missing Characters?
Occasionally, when you’re typing quickly, some of your text may seem to disappear.  Actually your text is still there, but has become blacked out.  This black out is usually caused by a slow screen update.  Because the information on your screen is coming through your modem, it needs to be updated (refreshed) occasionally, or parts of the information disappear from your screen.  To update your screen’s information, hold down the Ctrl key and press l.  Do this whenever chunks of your text black out.

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